Human and Citizen Rights, Freedoms, and Duties

CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE

The Verkhovna Rada (the Parliament) of Ukraine on behalf of the Ukrainian people – Ukrainian citizens of all nationalities,

expressing the sovereign will of the people,

relying on the centuries-old history of Ukrainian state-building and upon the right to self-determination realised by the Ukrainian nation, all the Ukrainian people,

aspiring to ensure human rights and freedoms, and life conditions worthy
of human dignity,

supporting the strengthening of civil harmony on the Ukrainian soil,

striving to develop and strengthen a democratic, social, law-based state,

realizing the responsibility in the eyes of God, before our own conscience, past, present and future generations,

guided by the Act of Declaration of the Independence of Ukraine
of 24 August 1991, approved by the national vote on 1 December 1991,

adopts this Constitution as the Fundamental Law of Ukraine.

Title I

General Principles

Article 1.Ukraine shall be a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, law-based state.

Article 2.The sovereignty of Ukraine shall extend throughout its entire territory.

Ukraine shall be a unitary state.

The territory of Ukraine within its present borders shall be indivisible and inviolable.

Article 3.An individual, his life and health, honour and dignity, inviolability and security shall be recognised in Ukraine as the highest social value.

Human rights and freedoms, and guarantees thereof shall determine the essence and course of activities of the State. The State shall be responsible to the individual for its activities. Affirming and ensuring human rights and freedoms shall be the main duty of the State.

Article 4.There shall be a single form of citizenship in Ukraine. The grounds for the acquisition and termination of Ukrainian citizenship shall
be determined by law.

Article 5.Ukraine shall be a republic.

The people shall be the bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of power
in Ukraine. The people shall exercise power directly or through the state authorities and local self-government bodies.

The right to determine and change the constitutional order in Ukraine shall belong exclusively to the people and shall not be usurped by the State, its bodies, or officials.

No one shall usurp the State power.

Article 6.The State power in Ukraine shall be exercised with the consideration of its division into legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

Legislative, executive, and judicial bodies shall exercise their authority within the limits determined by this Constitution and in accordance with the laws of Ukraine.

Article 7.Local self-governance shall be recognised and guaranteed
in Ukraine.

Article 8.The rule of law shall be recognised and effective in Ukraine.

The Constitution of Ukraine shall be regarded as superior law. Laws and other regulatory legal acts shall be adopted on the basis of the Constitution
of Ukraine and shall conform to it.

Norms of the Constitution of Ukraine shall be the norms of direct effect. Recourse to the court for protection of constitutional rights and freedoms
of an individual and citizen directly on basis of the Constitution of Ukraine shall
be guaranteed.

Article 9.International treaties in force, consented by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine as binding, shall be an integral part of the national legislation
of Ukraine.

Conclusion of international treaties, contravening the Constitution
of Ukraine, shall be possible only after introducing relevant amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine.

Article 10.The State language of Ukraine shall be the Ukrainian language.

The State shall ensure comprehensive development and functioning of the Ukrainian language in all spheres of social life throughout the entire territory
of Ukraine.

Free development, use, and protection of Russian and other languages
of national minorities of Ukraine shall be guaranteed in Ukraine.

The State shall promote the learning of languages of international communication.

The use of languages in Ukraine shall be guaranteed by the Constitution
of Ukraine and shall be determined by law.

Article 11.The State shall promote the consolidation and development
of the Ukrainian nation, its historical consciousness, traditions, and culture, as well as development of ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious identity of all indigenous peoples and national minorities of Ukraine.

Article 12.Ukraine shall provide for meeting the national, cultural, and linguistic needs of Ukrainians residing beyond the borders of the State.

Article 13.The land, its subsoil, atmosphere, water and other natural resources within the territory of Ukraine, natural resources of its continental shelf and of the exclusive (maritime) economic zone shall be the objects of property rights of the Ukrainian people. State authorities and local self-government bodies shall exercise the ownership rights on behalf of the Ukrainian people within the limits determined by this Constitution.

Every citizen shall have the right to utilise the natural objects of the people’s property rights in accordance with the law.

Property entails responsibility. Property shall not be used to the detriment
of the individual or the society.

The State shall ensure protection of rights of all property rights holders and economic operators, and the social orientation of the economy. All the property rights holders shall be equal before the law.



Article 14.Land shall be the main national asset and as such shall be under special protection of the State.

The property right for the land shall be guaranteed. This right shall
be acquired and realised by citizens, legal persons, and the State exclusively
in accordance with the law.

Article 15.Social life in Ukraine shall be based on the principles of political, economic, and ideological diversity.

No ideology shall be recognised as mandatory by the State.

Censorship shall be prohibited.

The State shall guarantee the freedom of political activities, not prohibited by the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine.

Article 16.Ensuring environmental safety, maintaining ecological balance in the territory of Ukraine, overcoming the aftermath of the Chornobyl
catastrophe – the catastrophe of global scale – and preserving the gene pool of the Ukrainian people, shall be the duty of the State.

Article 17.Protecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, ensuring its economic and information security, shall be the most important function of the State and a matter of concern for all the Ukrainian people.

The defence of Ukraine and protection of its sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability shall be entrusted to the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

Ensuring the security of the State and protecting the State borders of Ukraine shall be entrusted to respective military formations and law enforcement bodies
of the State, whose organisation and operational procedure shall be determined
by law.

The Armed Forces of Ukraine and other military formations shall not
be used by anyone to restrict the rights and freedoms of citizens or with the intent to overthrow the constitutional order, subvert the public authorities or obstruct their activity.

The State shall ensure social protection of citizens of Ukraine who serve
in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and in other military formations as well
as members of their families.

Establishment and operation of any armed formations not envisaged by law are prohibited in the territory of Ukraine.

The location of foreign military bases in the territory of Ukraine shall not
be permitted.

Article 18.The foreign political activity of Ukraine shall be aimed
at ensuring its national interests and security by maintaining peaceful and mutually beneficial co-operation with members of the international community
in compliance with the generally acknowledged principles and norms
of international law.

Article 19.The legal order in Ukraine shall be based on the principles according to which no one shall be forced to do what is not stipulated by law.

Public authorities and bodies of local self-government and their officials shall be obliged to act only on the grounds, within the powers, and in the way determined by the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine.

Article 20.The National Flag of Ukraine, the National Coat of Arms
of Ukraine, and the National Anthem of Ukraine shall be the State symbols
of Ukraine.

The National Flag of Ukraine shall be a banner of two equally sized horizontal stripes of blue and yellow.

The Great National Coat of Arms of Ukraine shall be established incorporating the elements of the Small National Coat of Arms of Ukraine and the Coat of Arms of the Zaporizhia Host, and shall be approved by the law, adopted by at least two-thirds of the constitutional membership of the Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine.

The Princely State Symbol of Volodymyr the Great (the Small National Coat of Arms of Ukraine) shall be the main element of the Great National Coat of Arms of Ukraine.

The State Anthem of Ukraine shall be the national anthem to the music
of M. Verbytskyi, with the words, approved by the law, adopted by at least two-thirds of the constitutional membership of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

The description of the State symbols of Ukraine and procedure for their use shall be determined by the law, adopted by at least two-thirds of the constitutional membership of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

The City of Kyiv shall be the capital of Ukraine.

Title II

Human and Citizen Rights, Freedoms, and Duties

Article 21.All people shall be free and equal in their dignity and rights.

Human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and inviolable.

Article 22.Human and citizen rights and freedoms affirmed by this Constitution shall not be exhaustive.

The constitutional rights and freedoms shall be guaranteed and shall not
be abolished.

The content and scope of the existing rights and freedoms shall not
be diminished by an adoption of new laws or by introducing amendments to the effective laws.

Article 23.Every person shall have the right to free development of his personality, provided that the rights and freedoms of other persons are not thus violated, and shall have duties to society, in which free and comprehensive development of his personality shall be guaranteed.

Article 24.Citizens shall have equal constitutional rights and freedoms and shall be equal before the law.

There shall be no privileges or restrictions based on race, skin colour, political, religious, and other beliefs, gender, ethnic and social origin, property status, place of residence, linguistic or other characteristics.

Equality of the rights of women and men shall be ensured by providing women with opportunities equal to those of men in public, political and cultural activities, in obtaining education and in professional training, in work and remuneration for it; by taking special measures for the protection of work and health of women; by establishing pension privileges; by creating conditions that make it possible for women to combine work and motherhood; by adopting legal protection, material and moral support of motherhood and childhood, including the provision of paid leave and other privileges to pregnant women and mothers.

Article 25.Nocitizen of Ukraine shall be deprived of citizenship or of the right to change citizenship.

No citizen of Ukraine shall be exiled from Ukraine or surrendered to another state.

Ukraine shall guarantee care and protection to its citizens staying abroad.

Article 26.Foreigners and stateless persons staying in Ukraine on legal grounds shall enjoy the same rights and freedoms and bear the same duties
as citizens of Ukraine, except as restricted by the Constitution, laws,
or international treaties of Ukraine.

Foreigners and stateless persons may be granted asylum under the procedure established by law.

Article 27.Every person shall have the inalienable right to life.

No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of life. Protection of human life shall
be the duty of the State.

Everyone shall have the right to protect his life and health, and lives and health of other people against unlawful encroachments.

Article 28.Everyone shall have the right to have his dignity respected.

No one shall be subjected to torture, cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment that violates his dignity.

No person shall be subjected to medical, scientific, or other experiments without his free consent.

Article 29.Every person shall have the right to freedom and personal inviolability.

No one shall be arrested or held in custody except under a substantiated court decision and on the grounds and in accordance with the procedure established by law.

In the event of an urgent necessity to prevent or stop a crime, bodies authorised by law may hold a person in custody as a temporary preventive measure, the reasonable grounds for which shall be verified by court within seventy two hours. The detained person shall be immediately released if a substantiated court decision regarding his detention is not served to them within seventy-two hours.

Every person, arrested or detained, shall be informed without delay of the reasons for his arrest or detention, apprised of his rights, and from the moment
of detention, shall be given an opportunity to personally defend himself/herself
or to receive legal assistance from a defender.

Every person detained shall have the right to challenge his detention in court at any time.

Relatives of an arrested or detained person shall be informed immediately
of such an arrest or detention.

Article 30.Everyone shall be guaranteed the inviolability of his domicile.

Intrusion into a person’s domicile or other property, inspection or search thereof, shall not be permitted except when under a substantiated court decision.

In urgent cases related to preservation of human life and property or to the direct pursuit of persons suspected of committing a crime, other procedures
of entering a person’s domicile or other property, inspecting or searching thereof, determined by law, shall be allowed.

Article 31.Everyone shall be guaranteed privacy of his correspondence, telephone conversations, telegraph, and other communications. Exceptions shall
be established only by court in cases stipulated by law for the purposes
of preventing crime or ascertaining the truth during the investigation of a criminal case, if it is not possible to obtain information by other means.

Article 32.No one shall be subjected to interference in his private life and family matters, except when such interference is stipulated by the Constitution
of Ukraine.

The collection, storage, use, and dissemination of confidential information about a person without his consent shall not be permitted, except for the cases determined by law and only in the interests of national security, economic welfare, and human rights.

Every citizen shall have the right to have access to the information about himself/herself possessed by public authorities and bodies of local self-government, institutions, and organisations unless such information is considered a state
or other secret protected by law.

Everyone shall be guaranteed judicial protection of the right to rectify unauthentic information about himself/herself and members of his family, the right
to demand the expungement of any type of information, as well as the right
to compensation for material and moral damages caused by the collection, storage, use, and dissemination of such unauthentic information.

Article 33.Every person, legally staying in the territory of Ukraine shall
be guaranteed freedom of movement and travel, free choice of place of residence, and the right to freely leave the territory of Ukraine, with the exception
of restrictions stipulated by law.

A citizen of Ukraine may not be deprived of the right to return to Ukraine
at any time.

Article 34.Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of thought and speech, and to free expression of his views and beliefs.

Everyone shall have the right to freely collect, store, use, and disseminate information by oral, written, or other means at his discretion.

The exercise of such rights may be restricted by law in the interests
of national security, territorial integrity, or public order, for the purposes
of preventing disturbances or crimes, protecting the health of the population, protecting the reputation or rights of other persons, preventing the publication
of information received confidentially, or supporting the authority and impartiality of justice.

Article 35.Everyone shall have right to freedom of beliefs and religion. This right shall include the freedom to profess any religion or profess no religion, to freely practice religious rites and ceremonial rituals, alone or collectively, and
to pursue religious activities.

The exercise of this right may be restricted by law only in the interests
of protection of the public order, health and morality of the population,
or protection of the rights and freedoms of other persons.

The Church and religious organisations in Ukraine shall be separated from the State, and school shall be separated from the Church. No religion shall
be recognised by the State as mandatory.

No one shall be exempt from his duties to the State or refuse to abide
by laws on religious grounds. If the performance of military duty contradicts the religious beliefs of a citizen, the performance of this duty shall be replaced
by alternative (non-military) service.

Article 36.Citizens of Ukraine shall have the right to freedom of association into political parties and public organisations for exercising and protecting their rights and freedoms and for satisfying their political, economic, social, cultural and other interests, with the exception of restrictions established by law in the interests of national security and public order, protection of public health,
or protection of rights and freedoms of other persons.

Political parties in Ukraine shall promote the formation and expression
of political will of citizens and shall participate in elections. Only citizens
of Ukraine may be members of political parties. Restrictions on membership
in political parties shall be determined exclusively by this Constitution and laws
of Ukraine.

Citizens shall have the right to take part in trade unions with the purpose
of protecting their labour and socio-economical rights and interests. Trade unions shall be public organisations uniting citizens bound by common interests
in accordance with the nature of their professional activity. Trade unions shall
be formed without prior permission on the basis of the free choice of their members. All trade unions shall have equal rights. Restrictions on membership
in trade unions shall be determined exclusively by this Constitution and laws
of Ukraine.

No one may be forced to join any association of citizens or be restricted
in his right to belong or not to belong to political parties or public organisations.

All associations of citizens shall be equal before the law.

Article 37.Foundation and activity of political parties and public associations shall be prohibited if their programme goals or actions are aimed
at the liquidation of the independence of Ukraine, change of the constitutional order by force, violation of the sovereignty and territorial indivisibility of the State, undermining national security, unlawful seizure of the state power, the propaganda of war or violence, fomentation of inter-ethnic, racial, or religious enmity,
or infringement of human rights and freedoms or the health of the population.

Political parties and public associations shall not have paramilitary formations.

Foundation and activities of organizational structures of political parties shall not be permitted within the bodies of executive and judicial power or the executive bodies of local self-government, in military formations, as well
as at state enterprises, educational establishments, or other state institutions and organisations.

Prohibition of the activities of associations of citizens, shall be possible only through a judicial procedure.

Article 38.Citizens shall have the right to participate in the administration of state affairs, in All-Ukrainian and local referendums, to freely elect and
to be elected to the bodies of State power and local self-government.

Citizens shall enjoy equal rights of access to the civil service and to the service in local self-government bodies.

Article 39.Citizens shall have the right to assemble peacefully without arms and to hold rallies, meetings, processions, and demonstrations upon notifying executive or local self-government bodies in advance.

Restrictions on the exercise of this right may be established by a court
in accordance with law and only in the interests of national security and public order, for the purpose of prevention of disturbances or crimes, protection of the health of the population, or protection of the rights and freedoms of other persons.

Article 40.Everyone shall have the right to address individual or collective petitions, or to personally recourse to public authorities, local self-government bodies, officials, and officers of these bodies obliged to consider the petitions, and to provide a substantiated reply within the period determined by law.

Article 41.Everyone shall have the right to own, use, or dispose of his property and the results of his intellectual or creative activities.

The right for private property shall be acquired in compliance with the procedure established by law.

Citizens may use the objects of state or communal property in accordance with law in order to satisfy their needs.

No one shall be unlawfully deprived of the right for property. The right for private property shall be inviolable.

The expropriation of private property objects may be applied only
as an exception for the reasons of social necessity, on the grounds of, and in the order established by law, and on terms of advance and complete compensation
of the value of such objects. The expropriation of such objects with subsequent complete compensation of their value shall be permitted only under conditions
of martial law or a state of emergency.

Confiscation of property may be applied only pursuant to a court decision,
in the cases, to the extent, and in compliance with the procedure established by law.

The use of property shall not prejudice the rights, freedoms, and dignity
of citizens, the interests of society or aggravate the environmental situation and the natural qualities of land.

Article 42.Everyone shall have the right to entrepreneurial activity that
is not prohibited by law.

The entrepreneurial activity of deputies, officials, and officers of the bodies of State power and local self-government shall be restricted by law.

The State shall ensure the protection of competition in pursuit
of entrepreneurial activity. The abuse of a monopolistic position in the market, unlawful restriction of competition, and unfair competition shall not be permitted. The types and limits of monopolies shall be determined by law.

The State shall protect the rights of consumers, exercise control over the quality and safety of products and all types of services and works, and promote the activities of public consumer associations.

Article 43.Everyone shall have the right to work, including a possibility
to earn a living by labour that he freely chooses or to which he freely agrees.

The State shall create conditions for citizens that will make it possible
to fully realise their right to work, guarantee equal opportunities in the choice
of profession and of types of labour activities, and implement programmes for vocational education, training, and retraining of personnel according to the needs of society.

The use of forced labour shall be prohibited. Military or alternative (non-military) service, work or service carried out by a person in compliance with
a verdict or other court decision, or in accordance with the martial or state
of emergency laws, shall not be considered the forced labour.

Everyone shall have the right to proper, safe, and healthy labour conditions and to remuneration no less than the minimum wage determined by law.

The employment of women and minors for work hazardous to their health shall be prohibited.

Citizens shall be guaranteed protection from unlawful dismissal.

The right to timely payment for work performed shall be protected by law.

Article 44.Those who are employed shall have the right to strike in order
to protect their economic and social interests.

A procedure for exercising the right to strike shall be established by law taking into account the necessity to ensure national security, public health protection, and rights and freedoms of others.

No one shall be forced to participate or not to participate in a strike.

The prohibition of a strike shall be possible only on the basis of the law.

Article 45.Everyone who is employed shall have the right to rest.

This right shall be ensured by providing weekly rest days, paid annual vacation, and by establishing a shorter working day for certain professions and industries, as well as reducing working hours at night.

The maximum duration of work time, the minimum duration of rest and
of paid annual vacation, days off and holidays, as well as other conditions for exercising this right shall be determined by law.

Article 46.Citizens shall have the right to social protection including the right to financial security in cases of complete, partial, or temporary disability, loss of the principal wage-earner, unemployment due to circumstances beyond their control, old age, and in other cases determined by law.

This right shall be guaranteed by the mandatory state social insurance based on insurance payments made by citizens, enterprises, institutions, and organisations, as well as by budgetary and other sources of social security; and
by establishing a network of state, communal, and private institutions caring for incapacitated persons.

Pensions and other types of social payments and assistance that are the principal sources of subsistence shall ensure a standard of living not lower than the minimum living standard established by law.

Article 47.Everyone shall have the right to housing. The State shall create conditions enabling every citizen to build, purchase, or rent housing.

Citizens in need of social protection shall be provided with housing by the bodies of State power and local self-government, free of charge or at a price affordable for them in accordance with law.

No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of housing other than on the basis of the law pursuant to a court decision.

Article 48.Everyone shall have the right to a standard of living sufficient for themselves and their families including adequate nutrition, clothing, and housing.

Article 49.Everyone shall have the right to health protection, medical care and medical insurance.

Health protection shall be ensured through state funding of the relevant socio-economic, medical and sanitary, health improvement and prevention programmes.

The State shall create conditions for effective medical service accessible
to all citizens. State and communal health protection institutions shall render medical care free of charge; the existing network of such institutions shall not
be reduced. The State shall promote the development of medical institutions under all forms of ownership.

The State shall provide for the development of physical culture and sports, and ensure sanitary-epidemic welfare.

Article 50.Everyone shall have the right to an environment that is safe for life and health, and to compensation for damages caused by violation of this right.

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right of free access to information about the environmental situation, the quality of foodstuffs and consumer goods, as well as the right to disseminate such information. No one shall make such information secret.

Article 51.Marriage shall be based on free consent between a woman and
a man. Each of the spouses shall have equal rights and duties in the marriage and family.

Parents shall be obliged to sustain their children until they are of full age. Adult children shall be obliged to care for their parents who are incapable to work.

The family, childhood, motherhood, and fatherhood shall be under the protection of the State.

Article 52.Children shall be equal in their rights regardless of their origin and whether they are born in or out of wedlock.

Any violence against a child or his exploitation shall be prosecuted by law.

The subsistence and upbringing of orphans and children deprived of parental care shall be entrusted to the State. The State shall encourage and support charitable activity in regard to children.

Article 53.Everyone shall have the right to education.

Complete general secondary education shall be compulsory.

The State shall ensure accessible and free pre-school, complete general secondary, vocational and higher education at the state and communal educational establishments; the development of pre-school, complete general secondary, extra-curricular, vocational, higher and post-graduate education, various forms of study; the provision of state scholarships and privileges to pupils and students.

Citizens shall have the right to obtain free higher education at the state and communal educational establishments on a competitive basis.

Citizens belonging to national minorities shall be guaranteed, in accordance with law, the right to education in their native language, or to study their native language at the state and communal educational establishments or through national cultural societies.

Article 54.Citizens shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, and technical creative activities, protection of intellectual property, their copyright, moral and material interests arising in connection with various types
of intellectual activity.

Every citizen shall have the right to the product of his intellectual, creative activity; no one shall use or distribute them without his consent, except for the cases established by law.

The State shall promote the development of science and the establishment
of scientific relations of Ukraine with the world community.

Cultural heritage shall be protected by law.

The State shall ensure the preservation of historical monuments and other objects of cultural value, and take measures to return to Ukraine the cultural treasures of the nation located beyond its borders.

Article 55.Human and citizen rights and freedoms shall be protected
by court.

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to challenge in court the decisions, actions, or inactivity of State power, local self-government bodies, officials and officers.

Everyone shall have the right to appeal for the protection of his rights to the Authorised Human Rights Representative (Ombudsman) to the Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine.

After exhausting all domestic legal instruments, everyone shall have the right to appeal for the protection of his rights and freedoms to the relevant international judicial institutions or to the relevant bodies of international organisations of which Ukraine is a member or participant.

Everyone shall have the right to protect his rights and freedoms from violations and illegal encroachments by any means other than prohibited by law.

Article 56.Everyone shall have the right to compensation, at the expense
of the State authorities or local self-government bodies, for material and moral damages caused by unlawful decisions, actions, or inactivity of State power, local self-government bodies, officials, or officers while exercising their powers.

Article 57.Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to know his rights and duties.

Laws and other regulatory legal acts defining the rights and duties of citizens shall be brought to the notice of the population in compliance with the procedure established by law.

Laws and other regulatory legal acts defining the rights and duties
of citizens, which have not been brought to the notice of the population
in compliance with the procedure established by law, shall be invalid.

Article 58.Laws and other regulatory legal acts shall have no retroactive force, unless they mitigate or nullify the responsibility of a person.

No one shall bear responsibility for acts that, at the time they were committed, were not deemed by law to be an offence.

Article 59.Everyone shall have the right to legal assistance. Such assistance shall be rendered free of charge in cases stipulated by law. Everyone shall be free to choose the defender of his rights.

In Ukraine, the advocate shall act to ensure the right to defence against accusations and to provide legal assistance during the hearing of cases in courts and other state bodies.

Article 60.No one shall be obliged to execute directions or orders that are manifestly criminal.

For the issue or execution of a manifestly criminal ruling or order, legal liability shall arise.

Article 61.No person may be brought to legal liability of the same type for the same offence twice.

The legal liability of a person shall be of an individual character.

Article 62.A person shall be presumed innocent of committing a crime and shall not be subjected to criminal punishment until his guilt is proved through
a legal procedure and established by a court verdict of guilty.

No one shall be obliged to prove his innocence of committing a crime.

An accusation shall not be based on illegally obtained evidence
or on assumptions. All doubts in regard to the proof of guilt of a person shall
be interpreted in his favour.

In the event of revocation of a court verdict as unjust, the State shall compensate the material and moral damages caused by the groundless conviction.

Article 63.A person shall not bear responsibility for refusing to testify
or to provide explanations about himself/herself, members of his/her family, or close relatives, the circle of whom is determined by law.

A suspect, an accused, or a defendant shall have the right to a defence.

A convicted person shall enjoy all human and civil rights, with the exception of restrictions determined by law and established by a court verdict.

Article 64.Constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms shall not
be restricted, unless a restriction is stipulated by the Constitution of Ukraine.

Under the conditions of martial law or a state of emergency, specific restrictions on rights and freedoms may be established with the indication of the period of effect for such restrictions. The rights and freedoms stipulated
in Articles 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 40, 47, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63 of this Constitution shall not be restricted.

Article 65.Defence of the Motherland, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine, respect for its State symbols shall be the duty of the citizens of Ukraine.

Citizens shall perform military service in accordance with law.

Article 66.Everyone shall be obliged not to harm nature or cultural heritage, and to compensate for any damage he/she inflicted.

Article 67.Everyone shall be obliged to pay taxes and levies in accordance with the procedure and to the extent established by law.

All citizens shall annually file declarations to the tax authorities at their place of residence on their property status and income for the past year,
in compliance with the procedure established by law.

Article 68.Everyone shall be obliged to strictly abide by the Constitution
of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine, and not to encroach upon the rights, freedoms, honour, or dignity of other persons.

Ignorance of laws shall not exempt one from legal liability.


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